Water Energy Matters

Issues related to the water-energy nexus

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What about all these other nexuses? Nexi?

More and more, organizations are not only talking about the water-energy nexus — but the food-water-energy nexus, or the energy-water-food-climate nexus.

Academia and Research Institutions
Last year, on Earth Day, Stanford University started organizing an annual gathering that brought together many of its schools and institutes into conversation with each other. The “Connecting the Dots: The Food, Energy, Water, and Climate Nexussymposium brought together the TomKat Center for Sustainable Energy, the Center on Food Security and the Environment, the Woods Institute for the Environment, and Stanford’s School of Earth Sciences.

The 2011 “Connecting the Dots” Annual Symposium. (Video courtesy of Stanford University)

In the above video, the opening speaker explains why the interdisciplinary gathering is important: “The great global challenges of the century of providing clean and affordable enrgy, adequate food and improved nutrition, clean water for people and ecosystems, a protected and sustained environment and planetary life support system–all these are tightly linked to each other.” The speakers presented on a range of topics, including global food challenge for the 21st century, competition for biomass as both a source for food and energy, and how aquaculture is linked to food security.

As a graduate student who is familiar with the bureaucracies of higher education, I realize that it is no small feat to bring so many schools and institutions together in one room and have them talk about the intersection of all these issues. The fact that these gatherings are happening signals to me that talking about these issues in an interconnected way is important because the challenges we face are becoming more and more urgent.

International and Regional Organizations
But it’s not only academics and researchers who are recognizing this. Just this past week, the United Nations Climate Change Conference, COP18, was held in Doha, Qatar. A panel discussion called “It Never Rains in the GCC” focused on the energy-water-food-climate nexus. The panel brought together experts from international, governmental, and organizations such as World Economic Forum, Global Water Partnership, Environment Agency Abu Dhabi, New York University, and UN Food and Agriculture Organization.

The GCC is the Gulf Cooperation Council, a loose political and economic alliance of six Gulf countries: Saudia Arabia, Kuwait, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Oman, Qatar, and Bahrain. The title of the panel refers to the fact that the Gulf region is very arid and suffers from extreme water scarcity. The area is heavily dependent on food imports and its freshwater supplies come largely from desalination processes. In response, GCC governments have announced over $100 billion of investments in desalination and water recycling by 2016, as well as over $200 billion of investments in energy efficiency and renewable and nuclear energy, following the development model launched the UAE.

afp_gulf solar

Gulf countries are undertaking massive renewable energy projects to address water-energy-climate nexus issues. UAE has emerged as a pioneer in this sector with solar initiatives. (Image courtesy of AFP)

Despite the region’s well-known oil resources, the UAE wants to substantially incorporate renewable sources to the traditional mix of fossil fuels for energy generation. The country set the region’s first renewable energy targets, which mandate over 2500 megawatts of solar, waste-to-energy, and wind projects in coming years. To address issues related to the energy-water-food-climate nexus, it has also implemented things like sustainability building and public lighting codes, air-conditioning performance, agricultural and landscaping efficiency standards to reduce energy and water consumption.

In the non-profit arena, environmentally-oriented philanthropic organizations such as Grace Communications Foundations are helping consumers recognize this at the individual level. Their food-water-energy nexus home page uses a venn diagram (remember these from elementary school?) to visually highlight the intersection of these issues. They explain that “because actions related to one system can impact one or both of the other systems, it is necessary to take a nexus approach.”

grace_nexusGrace Foundations focuses on education and provides suggestions on how people, at the individual level, can reduce their impacts on the nexus. Some of these suggestions include things like installing solar photovoltaic panels in the home, buying energy-efficient appliances, using mass transit or biking, saving water (and thus energy) by taking shorter showers, eating less meat (livestock requires a lot of water), etc.

So what?
It is important to recognize that these organizations aren’t approaching the food-water-energy nexus or the water-energy-food-climate nexus (pick whichever word you’d like to come first) in the same way.

Scholars and researchers at Stanford are looking at how issues in one of these areas affect those in another and at patterns of connections at different levels, for example, how climate change will disproportionately affect vulnerable populations in developing countries. GCC governments’ responses to the nexus is mitigation- and management-oriented, with a heavy development and investment component to it. Grace Foundations provides information and educational tools to make the public more aware, and aims at helping individuals, as consumers, make small changes to decrease their impact on nexus issues.

The “a-b-c” nexus terms are becoming buzzwords. First it was “a-b” — water-energy, energy-food. Now it’s “c-a-b” — food-water-energy. And even “a-b-c-d” — water-energy-food-climate. Which word or permutation of words will get tacked on next?

Despite the fact that the “nexus” terms may be getting a bit overused, it is important to not throw the baby out with the bathwater. Meaning that it’s very significant that people from different societal sectors — academia, government, civil society — are all recognizing that these environmental issues of water, energy, food, and climate are tightly interlinked. Our environment is a delicate ecosystem of checks and balances and what happens in one of these areas have significant impacts on what happens in the others.

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The widening water-energy gap in China

To meet water demands, Beijing have started melting snow. (Image courtesy of Agence France-Presse)

To meet water demands, Beijing have started melting snow. (Image courtesy of Agence France-Presse)

On a wintry morning in Beijing in 2010, two large vehicles drove around Tiananmen Square with a rather odd objective. Instead of trying to melt snow to clear the roads, these vehicles, equipped with high-powered heaters, were instead melting snow and collecting it to increase the city’s water supply. Designated snow-melting areas were spread across the city. The snow collected would be stored in dammed sections of three rivers that run through the municipality and eventually be used for road cleaning, irrigation, and to supplement river levels.

Beijing had to take these snow-melting measures to meet the demands of its rapidly-growing population: the city’s consumption of 3.55 billion cubic meters (938 billion gallons) of water in 2009 surpassed its water supply of 2.18 billion cubic meters (576 billion gallons). In 2010, Beijing’s population was 19.6 million; in 2011, it was almost 20.2 million. In one year, the city grew by 600,000 people — basically the size of Boston.

The water-energy gap
What is happening in Bejing is a microcasm of China’s growing problem of increasing energy demands and decreasing water supply. This is not unique to China. In previous posts, we have seen examples of this in the U.S., the Middle East, and Australia. However, it is particularly stunning in the case of China because it is the world’s most populous nation and has the second largest economy. Furthermore, China is the world’s driest countries.

Over the last decade alone, China’s economy created 70 million new jobs. According to the World Bank, this year, the same economy generated the world’s largest markets for cars, steel, cement, glass, housing, energy, power plants, wind turbines, solar panels, highways, high-speed rail systems, airports — the list goes on. China’s economy has increased more than eightfold since the mid-1990s and water consumption has increased more than 15 percent in that period. At the moment that China is solidifying its standing as a superpower, competition between energy and water threatens to halt its progress.

The gap is signified by a converging of three important trends which highlights the crucial relationship of the water-energy nexus: rising economic development, increasing energy demand, and water scarcity.

The gap is exacerbated by growth and climate change
China has roughly 617 billion cubic meters (163 trillion gallons) of water available for all uses. About 63 percent is for agriculture, 12 percent is for municipal and domestic use, and 23 percent for industry use.

China’s total water resource has dropped more than 13 percent since 2000, meaning it has lost 350 billion cubic meters (93 trillion gallons) of its water supply. To put this in this perspective, each year, China has lost as much water as the amount that flows through the mouth of the Mississipi River in nine months. Chinese climatologists say a lot of this is because of climate change, which is disrupting patterns of rain and snowfall.

In that same period since 2000, coal production has tripled to 3.47 billion metric tons (3.83 billion short tons) a year. National projections say that the country’s coal industry will need to produce an additional one billion metric tons of coal annually by 2020.

Freshwater needed for mining, processing, and consuming coal accounts for 80 percent of industrial water use in China; at roughly 112  billion cubic meters (30 trillion gallons) a year, coal industry consumes one-fifth of the country’s water. China’s demand for energy, particularly for coal, is outpacing its freshwater supply.

Wiki_avg annual precipitation China

Most of China’s precipitation occur in the south while the north and west are relatively dry. (Image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons)

Beijing’s dire need for water also reveals another constraint of China’s water supply, which in and of itself is not new. 80 percent of the rainfall and snowmelt (two major sources of freshwater supply) occurs in the south, while the mostly desert regions of the north and west receive 20 percent of the precipitation.

What’s new is that China’s surging economic growth is fueling a fast-expanding industrial sector. Industry uses 70 percent of the country’s energy, and more energy supplies is needed to meet the booming growth. However, unlike its water supply, China’s coal reserves (its main energy resource) are mostly found in the north. The problem, say government officials, is that there is not enough water to mine, process, and consume those reserves, and still develop the urban and manufacturing centers that China envisions for the region.

What the Chinese government is and is not doing
The national and provincial governments have been incredibly effective in enacting and enforcing a range of water conservation and efficients measures. These policies have sharply reduced waste, shifted water from agriculture to industry, and slowed the growth in national water consumption. For example, Beijing and China’s major cities are retrofitting their sewage treatment systems to recycle wastewater for use in washing clothes, flushing toilets, and other greywater applications. In short, China has been radically changing traditional approaches to water management.

Though it appears that many levels of government leadership and management clearly understand the crucial relationship between water and energy, they are focusing only on a particular aspect of the nexus. Fuqiang Yang, director of the World Wildlife Fund’s Global Climate Solutions project in Beijing, captures this mindset well: “People outside China talk about [greenhouse gas] emissions. Inside China, water is the highest priority.”

The irony is that the increasing greenhouse gas emissions coming from the fast-expanding coal industry is contributing to the water shortage problem. Emissions are the main contributor of climate change, which scientists say is responsible for disrupting patterns of and decreasing rain and snowfall in China.

Finding solutions to address freshwater shortages is important in the short term. However, most of the current efforts to mitigate water scarcity are “band-aid” solutions (melting snow, retrofitting sewage systems, rerouting water geographically, etc.), while the main cause of the issue — the the expansion of industry which demand more coal to be burned, which in turn affects climate patterns, causing less rainfall — remains largely unaddressed. For now, anyway.

The sutures won’t hold
Another way the government is trying to reduce freshwater consumption is through transitions to renewable energy sources, which require less water than fossil fuel sources. China has launched enormous new programs of solar, wind, hydro, and seawater-cooled nuclear power. However, this is not making that much of a dent on supplying current energy demands, 70% of which is supplied by coal.

The water-energy ravine is here manifested in this image as a drainage pipe at the Baorixile coal mine in Inner Mongolia. (Image courtesy of Greenpeace)

The water-energy ravine is physically manifested in this image as a pipe drains used water at the Baorixile coal mine in Inner Mongolia. (Image courtesy of Greenpeace)

Today, China consumes more than 600 billion cubic meters (159 trillion gallons) of water annually. By 2020, China, the largest producer and consumer of coal, will mine and use up to 4.5 billion metric tons (5 billion short tons) of it. Largely as a result of this, the country’s consumption of water is projected to reach 670 billion cubic meters (177 trillion gallons) annually.

China has enough coal. The globally-significant question that needs to be answered is where China will find enough water to make developing new coal reserves possible. While they help, band-aid solutions such as melting snow won’t be able to bridge the increasingly gaping ravine between energy demands and water shortages.